Modern trade is increasingly demanding. It is characterised by a high speed of transactions, both at home and abroad. As a result, every manufacturer needs a convenient place to store its goods. This also applies to service companies that are involved in one stage of the supply chain. In order to provide suitable logistical solutions and high productivity, it is necessary to utilise the floor space to the maximum. It is also important to enable easy loading of products for onward transportation. This can be achieved through the proper design and subsequent construction of a warehouse facility. This requires official planning permission.
Optimum space and safety
A steel hall
with a roof can be used all year round. Prefabricated facilities are cheaper than their masonry counterparts and can also be built much more quickly. It should be noted that the warehouse hall should be adapted to the specific operating conditions and needs of the investors. The nature of the activity and the type of goods to be stored are important, with particular attention paid to environmentally hazardous substances. It is also worth taking into account the possibility of making changes in the construction of the hall, such as increasing the usable space by means of additional segments.
Work on the project must begin with a detailed analysis of the purpose of the warehouse building. Many factors have to be taken into consideration which affect the specific operation of the company. Products must be stored safely and protected from damage. This leads to the need to choose the right warehouse dimensions - height and span. The steel hall should meet safety standards in accordance with current legislation, including fire protection. All these factors will optimise the use of usable space, as well as achieving high productivity without unforeseen downtime.
Research and authorisation
The design of a warehouse, and its subsequent implementation, requires the collection of a range of documentation and the fulfilment of many formal requirements, including planning permission. A convenient location must be chosen and geotechnical studies of the ground must be carried out. Failure to adapt the design to the properties of the ground can cause problems with the stability of the building. Groundwater levels are important, and these can vary over the year. Therefore, it is not worth saving on these surveys. Obtaining planning permission is also linked to the work of a surveyor, who must produce a map for design purposes.
The construction work will proceed according to a specific schedule, under the supervision of a qualified person, namely the site manager. He or she has the task of keeping records of the progress of the works, which are then obtained by the owner or manager of the facility. This includes the building permits for the hall and all decisions concerning the facility that have been made during the various stages of construction. Special attention must be paid to this. The complete set of documents must be kept in a safe place, as infringement of this obligation or destruction of the documentation is punishable by a fine.
Top quality materials
When building a steel hall, the raw materials used are important. They have a direct impact on the strength of the entire structure, as well as the comfort and safety of the workers. Therefore, plastics and raw materials of the highest possible quality should be used and attention should be paid to the details of the installations used. An insulated warehouse hall protects stored goods from damage caused by moisture, overheating or too low an ambient temperature.
Efficient organisation of logistics
The warehouse hall should function in such a way as to achieve flawless organisation of the flow of goods. This increases the efficiency of employees, which translates into real profits for the investor. It is important to save processes and equip the hall with the right equipment. The layout of the warehouse space should be adapted to the specifics of goods distribution. It is also important to use materials with an appropriate static and dynamic load factor. Depending on their intended use, materials should be resistant to chemical agents as well as impact. This is important, for example, when laying flooring.
Durable concrete floor
The steel hall floor must be able to withstand mechanical and thermal loads, as well as having adequate abrasion resistance. It must be airtight, easy to clean and have an anti-slip layer. The floor can be made in various ways. The most common are concrete surfaces with steel reinforcement or reinforcement nets. The latter are used when high loads are anticipated. In the food and pharmaceutical industries, it is advisable to use floors with a surface that does not require hardening. These are finished with tiles or epoxy resins to ensure that the premises are clean and sterile. So-called floating floors, which are not permanently attached to the substructure, are often used. They have a high durability as well as a relatively low cost of construction.
An important consideration is the number and location of expansion joints, i.e. notches in the floor. They must have the correct depth, as this allows the surface to work properly, thus preventing cracking. The incisions are made after the concrete has reached the correct compressive strength, i.e. 3 to 4 weeks after the floor has been poured. Using suitable expansion joint compounds, the incisions are protected and sealed. These materials are resistant to adverse weather conditions, as well as to oils and other chemical agents.
Ventilation and air exchange
The construction of a warehouse involves the need for a ventilation system. The spread of contaminated air must be limited as much as possible and effectively discharged from the site. This applies not only to water vapour, but also to flammable vapours, which must not exceed permissible concentrations considered safe for humans. Treated, purified air must be provided for the use of workers. Ventilation must be designed to ensure safe working conditions and must comply with the legal requirements found in the relevant regulations and standards.
The duration of the project depends on the nature and size of the warehouse. It can take several months or even a year. The form of cooperation with the contractor is important. In order to speed up the work, it is possible to entrust the drawing up of the project and the execution of the construction within one company. A professional contractor can also take care of submitting applications to the authorities. It should be borne in mind that the cost of a warehouse is not only the construction itself, but also the work related to the organisation of the facilities and the execution of internal installations. To this must be added the development of the land adjacent to the hall, as well as the provision of gates and windows.
Proper execution of the project will allow the construction of a warehouse hall that is not only functional, but also aesthetically pleasing. It will last for many years and can be expanded if necessary. It will ensure the minimisation of costs associated with the handling of logistics processes and increase the company's profits. It should be added that a warehouse hall can be moved to a new location without damaging its structure. It is therefore a versatile facility that is adapted to the needs of the investor at any stage of use.
- Building Law, Article 60
- Construction Law, Article 63
- Ordinance of the Minister of Infrastructure of 12 April 2002