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    A static scheme is a mechanical representation of a structure that helps to understand how load is carried by the structural system and how it affects its components. Understanding the workings of this scheme is crucial to the design of safe, efficient and durable steel halls.

    Principles of the steel hall static scheme

    The basic principles of the static scheme are based on two key concepts: stability and strength.

    Stability is the ability of a structure to maintain equilibrium and avoid failure or deformation under loads. The static scheme analyses the stability of a steel hall by calculating how different loads act on the whole structure.

    Strength is the ability of a structure to carry the forces acting on it without suffering damage. The strength of a steel hall structure is usually analysed on the basis of internal forces, which are calculated from the static scheme.

    Components of a static scheme

    The static scheme is made up of several key elements. Each of these plays an important role in the structure and influences how loads are carried throughout the structure:

    • Supports, also known as support points, are places where a structure comes into contact with another structure, such as the ground or another part of the structure.
    • Beams are structural elements that transfer loads to supports, columns or girders. They can carry both permanent and variable loads, including the structure’s own weight, loads from snow or wind, as well as dynamic loads.
    • Columns are vertical structural elements that transfer loads from beams, girders and other elements to the foundations.
    • Girders are the main, structural elements that transfer loads from the purlins to the columns or directly to the foundations.
    • Foundations are the lower part of a structure that transfers all loads from the structure to the ground. They must be designed to withstand the sum of all the loads carried by the columns, beams and girders, and distribute these forces to the ground appropriately.

    Types of static schemes for steel halls

    Different types of static schemes are used in the design of steel halls, which determine how loads are transferred in the structure. Here are the most common types of static scheme used in steel halls:

    1. Frame static scheme: this is based on the use of steel frames, which are usually formed by connecting beams and columns. These frames are capable of carrying both vertical and horizontal loads, making them versatile and widely used in various types of structures, including steel halls.
    2. Static lattice scheme: this is used in structures where it is crucial to reduce the dead weight of the structure and to carry heavy loads efficiently. The trusses, which are elements of this type of scheme, are made up of interconnected bars forming a network of triangles, which provides high strength while minimising the weight of the structure.
    3. Spatial static scheme: used for structures with complex geometry and long spans. They are characterised by the use of multiple interconnected frames that form a three-dimensional structure.
    4. Combined static scheme: combines elements of different scheme types, allowing greater flexibility in design and adapting the structure to the specific requirements of a project.

    Static pattern analysis – how does it work and why is it importan

    Static scheme analysis is a key process in the design and construction of structures such as steel halls. The purpose of this analysis is to understand how loads are carried by the structure and how they affect its various components.

    The first step in static scheme analysis is to identify the loads that will act on the structure. This may include the dead weight of the building, wind and snow loads, dynamic loads associated with the use of the building, and potential seismic loads. In the static case, the forces acting on the structure must be balanced by the reaction forces in the supports to ensure the stability of the structure.

    Stability analysis involves understanding how the structure responds to loads, particularly those that may cause displacement or deformation.

    Based on the loads and the static scheme, the internal forces in the various elements of the structure are calculated. These values are then compared with the permissible values for the material in question to assess the strength of the structural elements.

    Designing a static scheme – what needs to be considered?

    Designing the static scheme of a steel hall is a complex process that must take into account a number of important aspects. It must comply with current standards and building regulations. For Poland, the basic rules for the design of steel structures are set out in EN 1993 (Eurocode 3).

    Depending on the purpose of the hall, there may be various specific requirements that must be taken into account in the design. These may be, for example, span requirements or special fire protection requirements. The design must ensure the stability of the structure under different loading conditions.

    Examples of the use of different static schemes in steel hall design

    An example of the use of a static (truss) scheme can be seen in the design of a long-span storage hall, which allowed a large span to be realised while keeping the structure’s own weight low and its strength high. The use of this scheme made it possible to meet the design requirements and provide a safe and efficient storage space.

    Another example is the design of a hall for the production of highly sophisticated components, where high structural rigidity is required. A spatial static scheme was used here, which allowed for precise load transfer and minimisation of vibrations, which was crucial for the production processes taking place in the hall. In addition, this scheme allowed for the creation of a large open space that could be used effectively for production processes.

    The most common mistakes when designing a static scheme and how to avoid them

    Designing the static scheme of a steel hall is a complex process during which various mistakes can be made. Among the most common are structural errors, which may arise from a misunderstanding of the properties of the materials, an incorrect choice of structural elements, or an inappropriate connection of different parts of the building. Often the mistake is to underestimate the loads that will act on the structure. This can lead to a lack of stability or insufficient structural strength. An error can also consist of using the wrong dimensions for the different parts of the structure. This can lead to inadequate strength or stability of the structure. If a proper stability analysis is not carried out, the structure may not be sufficiently stable, which in extreme cases can lead to its destruction.

    Summary – why is the right static scheme crucial for a steel hall?

    A properly chosen static scheme is crucial for a steel hall, as it plays a central role in ensuring the safety, strength and functionality of the building. It is a plan that defines how loads are transferred through the structure, from the roof and walls to the foundations, and how the structure responds to different loading conditions. Depending on the design requirements, the static scheme allows the selection of appropriate materials, the determination of the correct dimensions of structural elements and the design of an effective load transfer system.

    The correct use of the static scheme is crucial to the success of any steel hall project. It helps to avoid construction errors, ensuring the stability and strength of the structure. The static scheme is an indispensable tool in the design process to create safe and efficient steel construction solutions.

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